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How to Care For An Older Dog

How to Care For An Older Dog

Did you know that a dog is considered a senior once he is in the last 30 percent of his expected lifespan? As he approaches the last quarter of his life, he is considered geriatric. And just like humans, there’s a variety of bodily changes he will encounter. Regular veterinary checkups with blood work and X-rays are important to monitor these changes and make sure your senior dog is comfortable throughout his life.

What Can I Expect As My Dog Gets Older?

Normal signs of aging in dogs include slight cloudiness of the eyes, hearing loss, and moving a little slower. Signs that your dog is getting old that should not be assumed as normal dog aging are unexplained weight loss, an increase in water consumption and urination, lameness, forgetfulness, and other changes in their daily routine. If you notice these things, take your elderly dog to see your veterinarian for further evaluation.

How to Care For a Senior Dog

Senior Dog Diet

One of the most significant changes a senior dog will experience is his metabolism, which will decrease by about 20%. If his calorie intake doesn’t reflect this change, the risk of obesity increases. Weight management is the most important thing you can do to help your dog in his old age, as it benefits overall health, joint pain management, and more. Other health problems may require additional changes in your dog’s diet and nutritional needs.

Old Dog Skin Problems

Your dog’s hair coat will gradually become thinner, duller, and gray in color, especially around the face and muzzle. His skin will also become thinner and more susceptible to injury. Fatty acid supplements can help restore some of the quality and shine of a healthy coat. Your senior dog may also need to be groomed more often to prevent tangles and mats. With extra one-on-one attention, you can keep track of any new injuries, abnormal growths, or pain your dog may have. Keeping your dog’s nails trimmed to an appropriate length will help reduce arthritis in the feet and improve traction on all surfaces.

How to Help An Old Dog With Arthritis

Over time, your dog’s regular activity and movement will cause gradual degeneration in his joints and cartilage. This results in pain and inflammation in the joints, making it difficult for your dog to move as freely as he used to. There are a variety of things you can do for a dog with arthritis to make his life easier. Dog joint supplements can help replenish lost cartilage and synovial fluids. Weight management, elevated feeders, and ramps will reduce the stress on his aching joints. Heated or orthopedic beds can warm up stiff joints or give him the support he needs as he sleeps. For dogs with arthritis and normal liver and kidney function based on blood work, your veterinarian can add a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication to improve mobility with decreased pain.

Senior Dog Dental Care

Dental disease in dogs is the most common problem in older dogs. Over 70 percent of dogs have signs of gum disease by the time they’re age four. This makes good oral hygiene extremely important in your dog’s younger years, and especially as they get older. Plaque will start to form tartar if it is not removed, leading to gingivitis and other periodontal diseases. Regular dog dental care includes dog tooth brushing, dental rinses, hard chews, and treats for friction against plaque, and regular dental checkups with dental cleanings by your veterinarian.

Senior Dog Constipation

As your dog’s gastrointestinal tract gets older, the movement of food through the digestive tract may slow down, causing canine constipation. If your dog has pain while trying to defecate, constipation is also a common result. Some old dogs struggle to posture to urinate and defecate if they have arthritis, so managing joint pain may reduce constipation. However, dog constipation is also a sign of many other diseases, so check with your veterinarian if your dog has problems. Common solutions for constipation in elderly dogs include enemas or laxatives.

Old Dog Heart Murmur

Your dog’s heart may start to lose efficiency over time as the muscles gradually weaken. The heart won’t be able to keep up with the amount of blood it needs to pump, starting the slow process of cardiac failure. This is a particular problem in small breeds of dogs. Your elderly dog will tire easily and start to become weaker. If your veterinarian hears a heart murmur, chest X-rays are indicated. Your veterinarian will prescribe medications that strengthen the heart muscles, reducing the long-term effects of cardiac problems.

Kidney Disease in Older Dogs

Kidney problems in dogs can result from a variety of reasons, whether it’s a result of changes from the kidney itself, changes in other organs that affect kidney function, or a side effect from another disease. Blood tests and urinalysis are the most reliable way to determine if your pet has kidney disease. Depending on their ability to process foods and other products, your dog’s diet or medication may need to change. Additionally, blood pressure medications may be indicated.

Do Dogs' Bladders Get Weaker as They Get Older?

Incontinence in senior dogs is simply an uncontrollable leaking of urine from the bladder, which happens when the bladder muscles start to lose their strength. Hormone replacement can help replenish the hormones that affect bladder muscle strength. However, a loss of housetraining with frequent accidents may indicate a more serious problem, so see your veterinarian if your dog has any problems with urinary function.

Senior Dog Behavior

As they age, some dogs lose their ability to deal with stress, which can cause a variety of behavior changes, such as separation anxiety, noise phobias, aggression, and more. Combined with the animal’s increasing pain and decreasing ability to avoid the things that irritate or scare them, older dog behavior changes may become more and more prominent. Cognitive dysfunction happens when nerve cells start to die and there is a malfunction in nerve communication, similar to Alzheimer’s in humans. This can also cause a variety of behavior changes, including confusion, restlessness, decreased attentiveness and activity levels, and not recognizing family and friends. Diet changes and medications may help manage the changes you are noticing.

Do Older Dogs Get More Tired Than Usual?

A decrease in your dog’s energy levels may simply be a result of normal aging, but it can also be one of the first signs of disease, as the body struggles to fight viruses and infections. One reason for sluggishness is anemia. This occurs when the body does not have enough red blood cells, which carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. As a result, the animal will be weak and tired because the body is not getting enough oxygen to perform its daily tasks. If your dog’s lack of energy is a sudden change or continues for an extended period, talk to your veterinarian about the possible reasons.

Hearing and Vision Loss in Senior Dogs

Hearing loss in older dogs often goes unnoticed until it becomes severe. You may notice your dog isn’t obeying commands as often because he can’t hear you, or he may suddenly become aggressive when he’s startled by your approach. Dogs with hearing loss are still sensitive to vibration, so clapping your hands, flashing a light, or stomping while you’re trying to get his attention may be helpful. Vision loss is also common, whether in the form of nuclear sclerosis, cataracts, glaucoma, or more. However, if vision loss is sudden, you should consult your veterinarian.

Older Dog Temperature Regulation

The older your dog gets, the harder it is for him to regulate his body temperature in response to environmental changes. As a result, you’ll need to make extra efforts to keep him cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Limit his time outdoors when temperatures are extreme, and make sure he has ways to cool down or warm up. Easily accessible water and heated or cooling beds are all effective for helping your dog regulate his body temperature.

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