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How to Help a Dog With Separation Anxiety

Understanding Separation Anxiety in Dogs

Separation anxiety is a stress response that a dog exhibits when they are away from the person or people to whom they are bonded. This condition can manifest in various ways, from mild distress to extreme anxiety, causing significant stress for both the dog and the owner. Understanding the root causes and implementing effective treatment strategies can help alleviate your dog's anxiety and improve their overall well-being.

What Is Separation Anxiety?

Separation anxiety is a condition where a dog experiences intense stress and anxiety when left alone. According to Tina Flores, KPA-CTP, CSAT, a certified separation anxiety trainer, the condition is similar to a human experiencing a panic attack. When a dog with separation anxiety is left alone, their bodies are flooded with stress hormones, causing reactions ranging from mild distress to extreme anxiety.

Causes of Separation Anxiety

There is no single reason why some dogs develop separation anxiety. It can result from traumatic events, environmental changes, or even a genetic predisposition. Common causes include:

  • Changes in Family Dynamic: Events like the death of a family member or divorce can trigger separation anxiety in dogs.

  • Changes in Lifestyle: Rehoming or moving from a rural to an urban environment can be stressful for dogs.

  • Changes in Routine: A pet owner's transition from part-time to full-time work can disrupt a dog's routine, leading to anxiety.

Diagnosing Separation Anxiety

To determine if your dog has separation anxiety, it's essential to rule out other medical or behavioral issues. A veterinary exam can help identify any underlying health conditions that may be contributing to your dog's symptoms.

Signs of Separation Anxiety

Dogs with separation anxiety often learn their owner's predeparture cues, such as putting on a uniform or grabbing keys, and begin to exhibit stress responses before their owner even leaves. Common signs include:

  • Pacing: An anxious dog may walk back and forth repeatedly.

  • Vocalization: Continuous barking or howling while alone.

  • Loss of Appetite: Ignoring treats and bones.

  • Destruction: Chewing or tearing household items.

  • Elimination: House-trained dogs having accidents, including diarrhea.

  • Drooling: Excessive drooling leading to a soaked chin and chest.

  • Escape Attempts: Trying to escape confinement, potentially causing injuries.

Treating Separation Anxiety

The goal of treating separation anxiety is twofold: to help your dog feel less reliant on you and to encourage their ability to relax when you are away from home. This process requires time, patience, and often the help of a professional trainer or behaviorist.

Behavior Modification

Behavior modification involves changing your dog's perception of being alone. This process, known as systematic desensitization, should be done gradually and at your dog's pace. A dog trainer or veterinary behaviorist can help create a program tailored to your dog's needs.

Systematic Desensitization

Systematic desensitization involves leaving the room for a moment and returning before your dog becomes anxious. This incremental process helps build a strong foundation of comfort. It's also important to desensitize predeparture cues, such as picking up keys or putting on shoes, by incorporating them into training sessions.

Managing Absences

During the training process, your dog should never be left alone. Enlist the help of neighbors, friends, family members, dog walkers, or daycare to ensure your dog is not left alone, which can undo progress.

Exercise and Mental Stimulation

Increased exercise and mental stimulation can help reduce anxiety. Dogs with mild separation intolerance can benefit from challenging games and activities before being left alone. Trick training and puzzle toys can also mentally exhaust dogs, making them more likely to settle during your absence.

Interactive Toys

Interactive toys, such as treat-stuffed puzzles, can help dogs with mild separation intolerance. However, for dogs with severe separation anxiety, these toys may become cues for impending departure and can exacerbate anxiety once the food is consumed.


In some cases, medication may be necessary to help manage separation anxiety. Dr. Arielle Schoenlein, DVM, notes that medication can be used to decrease overall anxiety, enabling training to be more successful. There are two primary types of medications:

  • Anxiolytic Drugs: Long-term medications that take four to eight weeks to take effect and require annual blood work.

  • Event-Specific Medications: Used in conjunction with training to minimize anxiety during known triggers.

Case Studies

Case Study 1: Max's Journey to Overcoming Separation Anxiety

Max, a two-year-old Labrador Retriever, exhibited severe separation anxiety whenever his owner left for work. Max's symptoms included destructive behavior, excessive drooling, and continuous barking. His owner sought the help of a certified separation anxiety trainer (CSAT) to address his anxiety.

  1. Initial Assessment: The trainer conducted an initial assessment to understand Max's triggers and anxiety levels. It was determined that Max's anxiety was triggered by predeparture cues such as the sound of the garage door opening.

  2. Systematic Desensitization: The trainer implemented a systematic desensitization plan, starting with very short absences. Max's owner would leave the house for a few seconds and then return, gradually increasing the duration over several weeks.

  3. Desensitizing Predeparture Cues: The trainer incorporated predeparture cues into the training sessions. Max's owner would pick up keys and put on shoes without leaving the house to help desensitize Max to these triggers.

  4. Medication: To help manage Max's severe anxiety, the veterinarian prescribed an anxiolytic drug. This medication helped reduce Max's overall anxiety, making the training process more effective.

  5. Progress and Success: Over several months, Max's anxiety levels decreased significantly. He became more comfortable being alone, and his destructive behavior and excessive drooling diminished.

Case Study 2: Bella's Overcoming Mild Separation Intolerance

Bella, a four-year-old Beagle, showed signs of mild separation intolerance when her owner left for work. Bella would whine, pace, and occasionally have accidents in the house. Her owner sought the help of a dog trainer to address her anxiety.

  1. Initial Assessment: The trainer conducted an initial assessment and determined that Bella's anxiety was mild and could be managed with increased exercise and mental stimulation.

  2. Exercise and Mental Stimulation: The trainer recommended incorporating more physical exercise into Bella's daily routine. Bella's owner started taking her for longer walks and engaging in play sessions before leaving for work.

  3. Interactive Toys: The trainer suggested using interactive toys, such as treat-stuffed puzzles, to keep Bella occupied while her owner was away. Bella quickly learned to enjoy the ritual of getting a treat-stuffed toy when her owner left.

  4. Progress and Success: With increased exercise and mental stimulation, Bella's anxiety levels decreased. She became more comfortable being alone, and her whining, pacing, and accidents diminished.

Tips for Managing Separation Anxiety in Daily Life

Create a Routine

Establishing a consistent daily routine can help reduce anxiety and create a sense of stability for your dog. Include regular exercise, playtime, training, and relaxation in your dog's routine.

  1. Exercise: Provide your dog with plenty of physical exercise to help burn off excess energy and reduce anxiety. Regular walks, play sessions, and interactive games can help keep your dog physically and mentally stimulated.

  2. Mental Stimulation: Engage your dog's mind with puzzle toys, training sessions, and other mentally stimulating activities. Mental stimulation can help prevent boredom and reduce anxiety.

Safe Spaces and Comfort Items

Provide your dog with a designated safe space where they can retreat when they feel scared or anxious. This could be a crate, a specific room, or a cozy corner with their favorite bed and toys.

  1. Comfort Items: Include comfort items, such as a favorite blanket or toy, in your dog's safe space. These items can provide a sense of security and familiarity.

  2. Calm Environment: Create a calm and quiet environment for your dog, especially during times when they are likely to be exposed to loud noises. Use white noise machines or play relaxing music to help drown out frightening sounds.

Positive Reinforcement

Reward your dog for calm and relaxed behavior. Positive reinforcement, such as treats, praise, and playtime, can help reinforce desired behaviors and reduce fear and anxiety.

  1. Consistency: Be consistent in rewarding your dog for calm behavior. Immediate reinforcement is key to helping your dog understand what behavior is being rewarded.

  2. Gradual Exposure: Gradually expose your dog to fear-inducing sounds at a low intensity and reward them for remaining calm. Increase the intensity gradually over time, ensuring your dog remains comfortable and relaxed.

Seeking Professional Help

In some cases, professional help may be necessary to address noise phobia effectively. Consulting with a veterinarian, behaviorist, or positive reinforcement trainer can provide you with the expertise and support needed to help your dog overcome their fear.

  1. Veterinarian Consultation: A veterinarian can rule out any underlying health conditions that may be contributing to your dog’s noise phobia. They can also provide guidance on appropriate medications or supplements if needed.

  2. Professional Behaviorist: A professional animal behaviorist can develop a customized behavior modification plan tailored to your dog’s specific needs. They can provide ongoing guidance and support to help you implement the plan effectively.

  3. Positive Reinforcement Trainer: A positive reinforcement trainer can help you implement training techniques that encourage desired behaviors and reduce fear and anxiety. Positive reinforcement training focuses on rewarding good behavior rather than punishing undesirable behavior.


Noise phobia in dogs is a challenging condition that can lead to significant stress and behavioral issues. Understanding the causes and symptoms of noise phobia and implementing effective strategies for management and treatment can help your dog overcome their fears and lead a happier, healthier life. Early socialization, regular exercise, mental stimulation, and behavior modification techniques are key components in preventing and managing noise phobia. Working with professionals, such as veterinarians, behaviorists, and trainers, can provide the guidance and support needed to address this issue effectively. With patience, consistency, and a positive approach, you can help your dog develop the skills and confidence needed to navigate their environment without fear.


separation anxiety in dogs
separation anxiety in dogs


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